Abstracts of supporting research
and the Skin
Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and Skin Ageing in Smokers
Lahmann C, Bergemann J, Harrison G, Young AR
Smokers look older than non-smokers of the same age… We suggest that
smoking-induced MMP-1 might be important in the skin-ageing effects of tobacco
Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma and Cigarette Smoking
Smith JB, Randle HW
Several recent studies have linked cigarette
smoking to an increased risk of squamous cell
skin cancer, but previous studies have found
no correlation between smoking and basal cell
smoking is associated with an increased prevalence
of basal cell carcinomas larger than 1.0 cm in diameter.
Between Smoking and Skin Cancer
De Hertog SA, Wensveen CA, Bastiaens MT, et al
J Clin Oncol. 2001;1;19:231-238
Purpose: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for
several cancers. The risk of cutaneous malignancies
related to smoking, however, is relatively unknown.
We investigated the possible association between smoking and skin cancer.
Results: An association between smoking and squamous cell carcinoma of
the skin was found. After adjustment for age, sex, and sun exposure, the
relative risk of
squamous cell carcinoma was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 3.2; P:
=.008). There was a dose-response relationship with number of cigarettes
and pipes smoked.
Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor for cutaneous
squamous cell carcinoma.
Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Keratinocyte
Migration by Nicotine
Involves Modulations of Calcium Influx and Intracellular
Zia S, Ndoye A, Lee TX, Webber RJ, Grando SA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;293:973-981
Early stages of wound healing rely on the ability
of keratinocytes (KCs) to move over the denuded
dermis to re-epithelialize the defect….
Thus, nicotine exerts inhibitory
effects on keratinocyte migration, and Ca(2+) serves as a second messenger
in the signaling pathway. These results help explain deleterious effects
of nicotine on wound re-epithelialization, and suggest that smoking may
delay wound healing via nicotinic receptor-mediated pathway.
Alterations of Extracellular Matrix Induced by Tobacco Smoke Extract
Yin L, Morita A, Tsuji T
Arch Dermatol Res. 2000;292:188-194
Epidemiologic studies have indicated the association between tobacco
smoking and skin aging, but the exact mechanism of tobacco smoke-induced
premature skin aging is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated
the alterations of collagen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue
inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in human fibroblasts treated
with tobacco smoke extract. Human fibroblasts were exposed to different
concentrations of water-soluble extract from tobacco smoke….
These observations suggest that the imbalance
of connective tissue matrix components might
contribute to the molecular basis for premature
skin aging in smokers. They also suggest that
reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen
mediate this process.
Induction of Alopecia in Mice Exposed
to Cigarette Smoke
D'Agostini F, Balansky R, Pesce C, et al
Toxicol Lett. 2000;114:117-123
Besides being responsible for a high proportion
of those chronic degenerative diseases that
are the leading causes of death in the population,
tobacco smoking has been associated with skin
diseases. Smoke genotoxicants are metabolized
in hair follicle cells, where they form DNA adducts and cause DNA damage.
The suspicion was raised that, in humans, a
link may exist between smoking and both premature
grey hair and hair loss. In order to check
this hypothesis, we carried out a study in
C57BL/6 mice exposed whole-body to a mixture
of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke.
After 3 months exposure, most mice developed
areas of alopecia and grey hair, while no such
lesions occurred either in sham-exposed mice or in smoke-exposed mice receiving
the chemopreventive agent N-acetylcysteine with drinking water. Cell apoptosis
occurred massively in the hair bulbs at the edge of alopecia areas. Smoke-exposed
mice had extensive atrophy of the epidermis, reduced thickness of the subcutaneous
tissue, and scarcity of hair follicles.