Institute for Healing Arts Research : Director, Andrew Kochan, M.D.

Clinical Programs: Stop Smoking Now
Abstracts of supporting research

Smoking and the Skin

 Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and Skin Ageing in Smokers
Lahmann C, Bergemann J, Harrison G, Young AR
Lancet. 2001;24;:935-936

Smokers look older than non-smokers of the same age… We suggest that smoking-induced MMP-1 might be important in the skin-ageing effects of tobacco smoking.

Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma and Cigarette Smoking
Smith JB, Randle HW
Cutis. 2001;67:73-76

Several recent studies have linked cigarette smoking to an increased risk of squamous cell skin cancer, but previous studies have found no correlation between smoking and basal cell carcinoma… Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased prevalence of basal cell carcinomas larger than 1.0 cm in diameter.

Relation Between Smoking and Skin Cancer
De Hertog SA, Wensveen CA, Bastiaens MT, et al
J Clin Oncol. 2001;1;19:231-238

Purpose: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for several cancers. The risk of cutaneous malignancies related to smoking, however, is relatively unknown. We investigated the possible association between smoking and skin cancer.
Results: An association between smoking and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin was found. After adjustment for age, sex, and sun exposure, the relative risk of squamous cell carcinoma was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 3.2; P: =.008). There was a dose-response relationship with number of cigarettes and pipes smoked. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Keratinocyte Migration by Nicotine Involves Modulations of Calcium Influx and Intracellular Concentration
Zia S, Ndoye A, Lee TX, Webber RJ, Grando SA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;293:973-981

Early stages of wound healing rely on the ability of keratinocytes (KCs) to move over the denuded dermis to re-epithelialize the defect…. Thus, nicotine exerts inhibitory effects on keratinocyte migration, and Ca(2+) serves as a second messenger in the signaling pathway. These results help explain deleterious effects of nicotine on wound re-epithelialization, and suggest that smoking may delay wound healing via nicotinic receptor-mediated pathway.

Alterations of Extracellular Matrix Induced by Tobacco Smoke Extract
Yin L, Morita A, Tsuji T
Arch Dermatol Res. 2000;292:188-194

Epidemiologic studies have indicated the association between tobacco smoking and skin aging, but the exact mechanism of tobacco smoke-induced premature skin aging is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the alterations of collagen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in human fibroblasts treated with tobacco smoke extract. Human fibroblasts were exposed to different concentrations of water-soluble extract from tobacco smoke….

These observations suggest that the imbalance of connective tissue matrix components might contribute to the molecular basis for premature skin aging in smokers. They also suggest that reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen mediate this process.

Induction of Alopecia in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke
D'Agostini F, Balansky R, Pesce C, et al
Toxicol Lett. 2000;114:117-12
Besides being responsible for a high proportion of those chronic degenerative diseases that are the leading causes of death in the population, tobacco smoking has been associated with skin diseases. Smoke genotoxicants are metabolized in hair follicle cells, where they form DNA adducts and cause DNA damage. The suspicion was raised that, in humans, a link may exist between smoking and both premature grey hair and hair loss. In order to check this hypothesis, we carried out a study in C57BL/6 mice exposed whole-body to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke. After 3 months exposure, most mice developed areas of alopecia and grey hair, while no such lesions occurred either in sham-exposed mice or in smoke-exposed mice receiving the chemopreventive agent N-acetylcysteine with drinking water. Cell apoptosis occurred massively in the hair bulbs at the edge of alopecia areas. Smoke-exposed mice had extensive atrophy of the epidermis, reduced thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, and scarcity of hair follicles.

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